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Plagas: llegó la tucura y apunta a los cultivos de verano

Las poblaciones de tucuras representan un problema en zonas ganaderas de forrajes cultivados y de pastizales naturales, en los que se ha calculado que 40 tucuras por metro cuadrado comen la misma cantidad de forraje que un bovino.

Los cultivos graníferos –soja, maíz, sorgo y girasol– también son afectados por ese insecto. “En el caso específico de soja, densidades entre 20 y 40 tucuras por metro cuadrado producen mermas del 12% al 38% de la producción”, señaló el especialista Nicolás Iannone, especialista en manejo de plagas del INTA Pergamino –Buenos Aires–.

La vigilancia y el oportuno control de tucuras, en las zonas de cría donde está presente, son aspectos fundamentales y críticos. De acuerdo con el técnico, el énfasis del control de la plaga debe ponerse mientras se encuentre en estado de saltona, un estadío anterior al adulto, que es volador. “Cuando las tucuras alcanzan el estado adulto, son de gran riesgo para la producción vegetal por su alta capacidad de vuelo a grandes distancias y por su voraz ingesta”, indicó.

La tucura es un insecto similar a la langosta, voraz, de alta capacidad de multiplicación, bien preparado para trasladarse y con una dieta puramente fitófaga. Si las condiciones ambientales le resultan adecuadas, puede convertirse en una seria amenaza para la producción vegetal y provocar pérdidas económicas significativas.

Cómo controlar

Las tucuras adultas muestran un potencial de dispersión en varios millones de hectáreas y riesgo de alto impacto sobre pastizales naturales y cultivados, así como sobre cultivos graníferos.

Según Iannone, las aplicaciones con insecticidas son siempre recomendables en las etapas de saltonas, pues son mas vulnerables y se logra una mayor efectividad. “Si todavía no entraron al lote y se encuentran en potreros vecinos, es conveniente hacer un cerco o barrera química perimetral: se hacen pasadas de insecticida con equipo terrestre o aéreo, con la intención de impedir o retrasar –y minimizar– su ingreso al lote”.

Por otra parte, si se encuentran diseminadas en todo el lote cuando las plantas del cultivo tienen poco desarrollo, una o dos tucuras por metro cuadrado pueden causar grandes daños. En cambio, con un cultivo bien desarrollado se requieren entre 5 y 8 insectos por metros cuadrado.

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0. Whoops\Handler\PrettyPageHandler