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Cogollero en maíz

El gusano cogollero u oruga militar tardía (Spodoptera frugiperda) es una de las plagas más importantes del maíz en Argentina. Puede causar daños en cualquier estadio del cultivo, dependiendo de la fecha de siembra y región. Actúa como cortadora en la implantación, como defoliadora del cogollo en etapas vegetativas, como barrenadora del tallo en condiciones de sequía o atacando la espiga en estadios reproductivos. En Argentina esta plaga completa 3 a 4 generaciones por año y cada hembra desova varias veces, pudiendo llegar a producir entre 500 y 2000 huevos.

La introducción de los maíces transgénicos con protección contra insectos (Bt) permitió la ampliación de la fecha y región de siembra en Argentina. Sin embargo, tal y como ocurre con otras herramientas, su uso repetido y manejo inadecuado está conduciendo a la selección de individuos resistentes. Un manejo integrado de plagas basado en la combinación de estrategias será esencial para frenar este proceso.

En esa línea, la planificación del cultivo es muy importante, ya que el ataque de Spodoptera frugiperda está influido por el cultivo anterior, el manejo del barbecho, la presencia de malezas, la fecha de siembra y el material sembrado, entre otros factores.

El monitoreo frecuente y el rápido accionar – antes de que las larvas ingresen al cogollo – son otras de las claves a considerar. Un monitoreo adecuado incluye la correcta identificación de los daños: corte de plantas, defoliación, perforaciones en tallos o daño en espigas, habiendo una marcada preferencia por los cogollos de plantas jóvenes. Las larvas pequeñas y medianas pueden raspar la epidermis de las hojas y causar defoliaciones leves, mientras que las de últimos estadios pueden cortar plantas pequeñas y causar defoliaciones de leves a severas. También pueden alimentarse de tallos o espigas según el ciclo del cultivo.

Ante la necesidad de utilizar insecticidas se recomienda rotar modos de acción entre ventanas de aplicación. Cada ventana dura 30 días y refleja aproximadamente el tiempo generacional de la plaga.  La eficacia de control lograda con insecticidas puede variar entre 20 y 80% según las condiciones ambientales y el tamaño de las larvas, lo que de nuevo el acento en el monitoreo frecuente.

La correcta elección de la técnica y tecnología de aplicación determina la acción o no de productos de comprobada eficiencia. Por lo tanto, el entendimiento de los factores que intervienen en el proceso de aplicación es determinante.

Con el objetivo de difundir información sobre estrategias de manejo de esta plaga, la REM desarrolló junto al Programa Manejo de Resistencia de Insectos (MRI) e IRAC Argentina el manual “Cogollero: bases para su manejo y control en sistemas de producción”.

 

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"https://admin.manualfitosanitario.com"
MAILGUN_DOMAIN
"mg.manualfitosanitario.com"
MAILGUN_PRIVATE
"891a7b2b7169e980a63e8f7f2a63d148-1b65790d-10ba594a"
MAILGUN_PUBLIC
"pubkey-53b40b5e5eb78b35ea96fa3751919d8c"
RECAPTCHA_SITE_KEY
"6LdGYBIUAAAAAK7pJ9Cl1r0wwfH7nHKUcac1irHh"
RECAPTCHA_SECRET_KEY
"6LdGYBIUAAAAACX4pEenJLwhLUkYcdEQ2BCafeK9"
0. Whoops\Handler\PrettyPageHandler